Competence

At Kalkulo, the in-house range of competence and experience spans across applied mathematics, computational physics, computer science, data analysis, scientific visualization, and geoscience. Combining our strengths with your domain expertise, we can together provide efficient solutions to your digital challenges.

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Tailored software solutions

In 2006, Kalkulo was originally founded for the purpose of performing the technology development tasks in a comprehensive and long-term R&D collaboration between Statoil and Simula Research Laboratory. Since then, the numbers of projects and clients have grown substantially. Still, the core of Kalkulo's business remains the same - to provide software solutions that are tailored to effectively help solving the challenges that our clients face. In such development processes we listen carefully to our customers and pull their domain expertise into the design, implementation, and deployment of the software. The better this collaboration evolves, the better will the final product be.

As company, Kalkulo provides a wide range of competencies on modeling and software development. Thus, we can address challenges across many disciplines. In addition, we have specialized competence on modeling in the areas of oil and gas, wind energy, and computational medicine. By browsing our presentations of selected projects and technologies, you will see good examples of what we can achieve for you. Several of the solutions we have developed have become important tools for our customers, and are often seen as competitive advantages. 

If you can not find the right software tool for your challenge, please feel free to contact us to discuss a tailored solution. 

 

Oil and Gas

Software tools for Exporation and production

Over more than a decade, Kalkulo has worked closely together with innovative companies in the oil and gas sector to create tailored software tools that improve their capability to locate new oil and gas prospects and to maximize the value of their investments. Several of these tools are showcased among our selected projects and in our technology overview.

 

Geoscientific consulting

Through close collaboration with industrial experts and development of several novel software tools for E&P, Kalkulo has built a strong competence on how to effectively use such tools in geoscientific studies. We are offering you this competence for commissioned studies or for adding technical capacity to your own team. In many cases, such consulting is based on, or even extending, the 4DPlates technology originally developed for Statoil/Equinor.

 

Strategic advice

Utilizing world-class industrial experience in oil and gas exploration, internally as well as in our extensive professional network, Kalkulo can be the source for strategic advice in connection to new initiatives and campaigns. We can also be a valuable partner for strategic discussions on digitalization.

 

Field trips

Building on our global network of geoscientific experts, Kalkulo can offer field trips designed to expose geological features that are relevant to many E&P challenges. Some of these trips are offered openly to any interested party, but we can also provide tailored excursions for closed groups with specific agendas. In addition to providing new or deeper understanding of the target area or target process, field trips are also an excellent opportunity for building and focusing your team.

 
 

Getting the most out of your Data 

Interactive Data Exploration

In many application areas, large amounts of data are available from physical observations and/or computer models. It can be a tough task to separate important information from the overall data volume, and to turn the raw data into knowledge. At Kalkulo, we have developed several applications that incorporate interactive data exploration through smart co-visualization of data from different sources, customized filtering, and statistical analysis.

Such functionality is part of our software tools for the oil and gas sector and are also centerpieces of the software products MetOcean and Torch. MetOcean combines different sources for meteorological, climate, and environmental data in order to analyse the situation in ice-covered ocean areas. Torch is a software tool for condition monitoring, performance assessment, and business decisions for wind farms. These products make use of Kalkulo's platform for data integration and decision support, DIDSy.

 

Data-Driven Forecasting through simulation and machine learning

While data exploration and data sifting represent first steps in handling the streams of data encountered in many applications, the next step is often to use these data for predictions. This can be done in different ways. For systems governed by the laws of physics, observations can be input to numerical models trying to mimic Nature. These models can then be used to estimate where the underlying physical system is headed. The weather forecast or the predicted flow of fluids in a pipeline are examples of combining observations with such dynamic simulation models, typically based on solving differential equations posed on a discretized geometry.

An alternative to encoding physics to mathematical equations and computer simulations, is to build the model directly on the available data in a probabilistic manner. Such data-driven models can also be derived for problems that can not be described by the classical continuum mechanical approach. Machine learning, which refers to a multitude of methods spanning from simple regression models to deep convolving neural networks, is the most important approach to data-driven forecasting.

Kalkulo has expertise in process simulation and machine learning across several application areas. As needed, we also collaborate closely with relevant research groups in these areas, in particular the Department of Numerical Analysis and Scientific Computing at Simula Research Laboratory and Department of Machine Intelligence at the Simula Metropolitan Center for Digital Engineering. One particularly interesting line of work is to develop hybrid approaches where simulations and machine learning strengthen each other.

 

Digitalization

Complementing our expertise on data exploration and data-driven forecasting, Kalkulo has long experience in designing and building software solutions that interface seamlessly into existing and planned digital workflows. The key to digitalization is to see how the various digital puzzle pieces of your organization and business are connected, and how they, step by step, can brought to the level of autonomous interplay. At Kalkulo, we approach such transformative processes in a down-to-earth and pragmatic way, making sure that every step provides value to our customer.

 
 

Numerics

process modeling

Physical processes, both those in Nature and those man-made, are governed by the laws of physics. These laws can be formulated in terms of mathematical equations, which can be solved numerically on computers. The software representation of a physical system constitutes a computational model that can be used to increase one's understanding of the system at hand, predict the behaviour of the system over time and under certain conditions, perform "what-if" analyses based on variations of input parameters, investigate the sensitivity of the system relative to parameters and other conditions, possibly steer the underlying process, etc. Such simulations are important tools in many disciplines, not only in the traditional engineering fields, but also in areas spanning from pharmaceutics to fluid flow in an oil reservoir.

In most cases, models used for process simulation consist of ordinary and partial differential equations, combined with constitutive laws relating different physical entities to each other in an algebraic way. The model is typically defined over a physical domain that might have a complicated geometrical structure, and include coefficients and parameters that can have large variations. The geometry is then divided into adjacent smaller patches, forming a network of points (nodes) in which we try to compute the solution of the governing equations by terms of numerical approximations. All these factors contribute to the total complexity of the model, and influences how fast and accurate a solution can be computed. Mature understanding of the underlying physics combined with smart solution strategies and fast computers can provide reliable and very useful results for astoundingly complex models, such as simulating the effect of a chemical drug on a human organ or designing the next generation of offshore wind farms. 

Kalkulo's experts have long experience with numerical simulations, across several application areas and based on many different numerical solution methods.

 

Geometrical Modeling

When dealing with 3D geometrical objects digitally, one needs precise and efficient methods for creating the computer representation of the object from available data, as well as for manipulating the object over time and under different conditions. While geometrical models are needed to represent the computational domains for process models, they are also very valuable tools on their own. For instance, a cloud of measured points in 3D space gives limited understanding of the underlying physical object, especially when compared to the digitally tangible object appearing on your computer screen when the points are turned into surfaces, volumes, and topology that enrich the visual information. 

There are many ways to create a geometrical model, each with its pros and cons, indicating that experience and knowledge are needed to make the best decisions when solving a given problem. For instance, the methods used to represent and manipulate the soft shapes of a new car or plane body will fail when trying to model the complicated and very irregular geometry of a terrain with valleys, tall peaks and rapidly varying slopes.

Kalkulo has strong expertise in geometrical modeling, in particular applied to complex structures in geology and in medical imaging. 

 

Visualization

"A picture is worth a thousand words" - this phrase is even more valid when moving from the flat 2D imagery to 3D volumetric visualization of objects that might even change with the 4th dimension of time. Turning the bags of numbers coming from measurements or computations into properly colored and lighted scenes in 3D space, possibly animated over time, adds tremendous value to the interpretation of the underlying data sets.

Kalkulo has strong competence in advanced visualization of complex data sets, with special emphasis on applications in geoscience and medicine. Most software tools that we develop for our clients include functionality for advanced visualization.

One of our flagship applications in the oil and gas domain is 4DPlates, which relies heavily on interactive 3D rendering of transient geological data of varying resolution and spatial extent.

Other examples include the Samuari application capable of stereographic 4D rendering of medical data, and the Pacertool application that is used in surgery, combined with live x-ray imaging, to decide the patient-specific placement of pacemaker electrodes on the heart wall.

 
 

Computing

System architecture

Kalkulo's developers have long and well-tested experience in creating and maintaining advanced software solutions. This experience is built not only from the projects conducted in Kalkulo, but in most cases also from previous work in other software companies. We strive to develop systems that are robust and easily maintainable, while still being extensible. We build systems based on design choices that favor simplicity and bring value to the customer. When attacking a new problem, we select the best tools for the job, meaning that we are not a priori locked into certain programming languages or programming environments. In addition to actually designing and building your new system, we can act as a third-party advisor and discussion partner.

 

Code optimization

When solving complicated computational problems, it is not sufficient to implement a code that computes the correct answers. The answers often need to be computed as fast as technically possible, given the constraints of your hardware. In order to optimize computing-intensive codes, there are two major dimensions to take into considerations. First, are you using the optimal algorithms for your problem? This assessment requires deep knowledge of numerical methods and understanding of recent advances in the field. Secondly, provided that you have settled for the right solution strategy, is it implemented in such a way that it fully exploits your hardware? Such considerations requires insight in computer architectures, not only concerning the processors but also memory hierarchies, I/O devices, etc. Another delicate aspect is that the introduction of code optimizations must be carefully balanced towards maximising the robustness, accuracy, extensibility, and portability of your software. 

At Kalkulo, we are not only making sure that our software performs well, we can also assist you in assessing and optimizing your own software. Previous cases have shown several ten-folds improvement of computing speed after carefully introducing code optimizations in external code. 

 

GPU programming

Graphical processing units (GPUs) were originally designed for speeding up computer graphics and data visualization. However, GPUs have also turned into being very powerful, vector-oriented processors for more general computations, and are now heavily used in modern supercomputers. While being more tricky to program than the traditional sequential CPUs, the computational speed of your application can increase tremendously, even on your laptop. By their special design, GPUs are particularly well suited for large-scale machine learning jobs.

At Kalkulo, we use GPU computations in several of the software solutions that we develop for our clients. Previous work on external seismic codes that we have migrated from CPUs to GPUs has shown speed-up of more than 100 times. Please contact us to discuss the advantages of moving your software to the GPU.

 

High performance computing - even in the cloud

For maximum performance, really heavy computations are often done on dedicated supercomputers or virtual supercomputers offered as cloud services. Several of our developers have long experience with parallel computing on local clusters and dedicated HPC systems. Moreover, we have for several years assisted Schlumberger in the development of system software for one of their cloud solutions, and we are using commercial cloud solutions like AWS and Azure in projects for our clients.